NAME

Net::DNS::Nameserver - DNS server class

SYNOPSIS

    use Net::DNS::Nameserver;

    $nameserver = new Net::DNS::Nameserver(
	LocalAddr	 => ['::1' , '127.0.0.1' ],
	LocalPort	 => "5353",
	ReplyHandler => \&reply_handler,
	Verbose		 => 1,
	Truncate	 => 0
    );

DESCRIPTION

Instances of the Net::DNS::Nameserver class represent DNS server objects. See /EXAMPLE for an example.

METHODS

new

    my $ns = new Net::DNS::Nameserver(
	LocalAddr	=> "10.1.2.3",
	LocalPort	=> "5353",
	ReplyHandler	=> \&reply_handler,
	Verbose		=> 1
	);

    my $ns = new Net::DNS::Nameserver(
	LocalAddr	=> ['::1' , '127.0.0.1' ],
	LocalPort	=> "5353",
	ReplyHandler	=> \&reply_handler,
	Verbose		=> 1,
	Truncate	=> 0
	);

Returns a Net::DNS::Nameserver object, or undef if the object could not be created.

Attributes are:

    LocalAddr		IP address on which to listen.	Defaults to INADDR_ANY.
    LocalPort		Port on which to listen.	Defaults to 53.
    ReplyHandler	Reference to reply-handling
			subroutine			Required.
    NotifyHandler	Reference to reply-handling
			subroutine for queries with
			opcode NOTIFY (RFC1996)
    Verbose		Print info about received
			queries.			Defaults to 0 (off).
    Truncate		Truncates UDP packets that
			are too big for the reply	Defaults to 1 (on)
    IdleTimeout		TCP clients are disconnected
			if they are idle longer than
			this duration.			Defaults to 120 (secs)

The LocalAddr attribute may alternatively be specified as a list of IP addresses to listen to.

If IO::Socket::INET6 and Socket6 are available on the system you can also list IPv6 addresses and the default is '0' (listen on all interfaces on IPv6 and IPv4);

The ReplyHandler subroutine is passed the query name, query class, query type and optionally an argument containing the peerhost, the incoming query, and the name of the incoming socket (sockethost). It must either return the response code and references to the answer, authority, and additional sections of the response, or undef to leave the query unanswered. Common response codes are:

    NOERROR	No error
    FORMERR	Format error
    SERVFAIL	Server failure
    NXDOMAIN	Non-existent domain (name doesn't exist)
    NOTIMP	Not implemented
    REFUSED	Query refused

For advanced usage it may also contain a headermask containing an hashref with the settings for the aa, ra, and ad header bits. The argument is of the form { ad => 1, aa => 0, ra => 1 }.

See RFC 1035 and the IANA dns-parameters file for more information:

  ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc1035.txt
  http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/dns-parameters

The nameserver will listen for both UDP and TCP connections. On Unix-like systems, the program will probably have to run as root to listen on the default port, 53. A non-privileged user should be able to listen on ports 1024 and higher.

Packet Truncation is new functionality available in VERSION > 830. Only UDP replies are truncated. The size limit is determined by the advertised EDNS0 size in the query, otherwise 512 is used.

If you want to do packet truncation yourself you should set Truncate to 0 and truncate the reply packet in the code of the ReplyHandler.

See /EXAMPLE for an example.

main_loop

    $ns->main_loop;

Start accepting queries. Calling main_loop never returns.

loop_once

    $ns->loop_once( [TIMEOUT_IN_SECONDS] );

Start accepting queries, but returns. If called without a parameter, the call will not return until a request has been received (and replied to). If called with a number, that number specifies how many seconds (even fractional) to maximum wait before returning. If called with 0 it will return immediately unless there's something to do.

Handling a request and replying obviously depends on the speed of ReplyHandler. Assuming ReplyHandler is super fast, loop_once should spend just a fraction of a second, if called with a timeout value of 0 seconds. One exception is when an AXFR has requested a huge amount of data that the OS is not ready to receive in full. In that case, it will keep running through a loop (while servicing new requests) until the reply has been sent.

In case loop_once accepted a TCP connection it will immediatly check if there is data to be read from the socket. If not it will return and you will have to call loop_once() again to check if there is any data waiting on the socket to be processed. In most cases you will have to count on calling "loop_once" twice.

A code fragment like:

    $ns->loop_once(10);
    while( $ns->get_open_tcp() ){
	$ns->loop_once(0);
    }

Would wait for 10 seconds for the initial connection and would then process all TCP sockets until none is left.

get_open_tcp

In scalar context returns the number of TCP connections for which state is maintained. In array context it returns IO::Socket objects, these could be useful for troubleshooting but be careful using them.

EXAMPLE

The following example will listen on port 5353 and respond to all queries for A records with the IP address 10.1.2.3. All other queries will be answered with NXDOMAIN. Authority and additional sections are left empty. The $peerhost variable catches the IP address of the peer host, so that additional filtering on its basis may be applied.

    #!/usr/bin/perl

    use strict;
    use warnings;
    use Net::DNS::Nameserver;

    sub reply_handler {
	my ($qname, $qclass, $qtype, $peerhost,$query,$conn) = @_;
	my ($rcode, @ans, @auth, @add);

	print "Received query from $peerhost to ". $conn->{sockhost}. "\n";
	$query->print;

	if ($qtype eq "A" && $qname eq "foo.example.com" ) {
		my ($ttl, $rdata) = (3600, "10.1.2.3");
		my $rr = new Net::DNS::RR("$qname $ttl $qclass $qtype $rdata");
		push @ans, $rr;
		$rcode = "NOERROR";
	}elsif( $qname eq "foo.example.com" ) {
		$rcode = "NOERROR";

	}else{
		$rcode = "NXDOMAIN";
	}

	# mark the answer as authoritive (by setting the 'aa' flag
	return ($rcode, \@ans, \@auth, \@add, { aa => 1 });
    }

    my $ns = new Net::DNS::Nameserver(
	LocalPort    => 5353,
	ReplyHandler => \&reply_handler,
	Verbose	     => 1
	) || die "couldn't create nameserver object\n";

    $ns->main_loop;

BUGS

Limitations in perl 5.8.6 makes it impossible to guarantee that replies to UDP queries from Net::DNS::Nameserver are sent from the IP-address they were received on. This is a problem for machines with multiple IP-addresses and causes violation of RFC2181 section 4. Thus a UDP socket created listening to INADDR_ANY (all available IP-addresses) will reply not necessarily with the source address being the one to which the request was sent, but rather with the address that the operating system chooses. This is also often called "the closest address". This should really only be a problem on a server which has more than one IP-address (besides localhost - any experience with IPv6 complications here, would be nice). If this is a problem for you, a work-around would be to not listen to INADDR_ANY but to specify each address that you want this module to listen on. A separate set of sockets will then be created for each IP-address.

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c)2000 Michael Fuhr.

Portions Copyright (c)2002-2004 Chris Reinhardt.

Portions Copyright (c)2005 Robert Martin-Legene.

Portions Copyright (c)2005-2009 O.M, Kolkman, RIPE NCC.

All rights reserved.

LICENSE

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of the author not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific prior written permission.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

SEE ALSO

perl, Net::DNS, Net::DNS::Resolver, Net::DNS::Packet, Net::DNS::Update, Net::DNS::Header, Net::DNS::Question, Net::DNS::RR, RFC 1035